Mystery of the Ages (a critical review)
By Kelly Marshall
Chapter Six - Mystery of the Church (Pt. 3 of 5)
DEATH OF JESUS ON THE CROSS—THREE ERRONEOUS TEACHINGS
HWA begins to exert more control over the loyal convert. Inserted between the graphic details about the suffering and death of Jesus are three false teachings. The first teaching that the unwary reader is being introduced to is the "Healing Doctrine."
Because he [Jesus] had never even broken a law of health, he suffered the process of dying as no other human ever did. (p. 211)
The indescribable scourging was endured that believers might be healed from physical transgression, sicknesses or disease (Isa. 53:5; I Peter 2:24). What a terrible price our own very Maker paid that we might, by believing, be healed. Yet nearly all professing believers totally ignore what their Savior provided for them, and instead of relying on him, put their faith in human doctors, drugs, medicines and knives. (p. 212)
The focus has clearly shifted away from a loving Savior, who came to voluntarily die for our sins because He loved us, while HWA cleverly inserts his "law of health" teaching. Notice how HWA induces tremendous feelings of guilt over the death of Christ. By describing in gory detail how Christ was scourged, he evokes a powerful emotional response. It is through this insidious moment—a moment of vulnerability experienced by the reader—that HWA manipulates the reader into the belief that he is not "thankful" for Christ's provision because he had relied on medicine and doctors during his physical illnesses. The reader becomes mortified when he realizes that he's in the same category as one of the "professing believers that ignore what their Savior provided for them" since he's readily used doctors and drugs in the past. Again, another clever set up. Either believe in HWA's healing doctrine, or join the ranks of deceived traditional Christians (which follow Satan). HWA takes advantage of the reader's conscience and will use it against him. Who wants to be guilty of spitting in the face of God? The reader, who experienced great joy at finally being given "the key" in the previous chapter, will now experience deep guilt and shame over his sins in this chapter. This manipulation of emotional highs and lows is typical of religious cults' mind control methods.
Once the convert joins the group, he will be informed that taking medications [medicine] is a form of sorcery and witchcraft, and going to doctors is idolatry. He will be informed that having faith in Christ's provision, and being anointed with oil, and having prayed the prayer of faith to claim that provision, will bring healing. What is not explained to the convert is what happens when anointing doesn't work. Either the person: a) lives with the pain and blames himself for "not having enough faith," or b) dies, leaving members wondering whether he had enough faith, or whether he had some "hidden sin" in his life, or c) dies, but is looked upon as a "wonderful example of faith" for not buckling in to the devil and getting proper medical treatment. (Category "c" is reserved for mostly ministers.)
Members are conditioned to judge those who do not receive healing as "lacking faith." Those who do seek medical attention are whispered about behind their backs and treated with disdain. Others are "put out" (depending on the capacity for compassion held by the local minister). Members see illnesses as a personal trial sent by God to test their "faith" in His provision. If they give up and seek medical care, they believe they have failed the test. Members are also taught that sin falls into two categories: spiritual sin and physical sin (e., g. the account in Luke 5:18-25 is used to prove that there is "physical sin" when Jesus said to the man sick with palsy, "Man, thy sins are forgiven"). Illnesses are supposedly the penalty for transgressing physical laws that God had made to "govern our bodies." Members are taught that when Jesus healed the sick, their physical sins were forgiven. This teaching places a heavy burden of guilt on the member. Instead of offering a joyful and peaceful heavenly hope for the terminally ill, the dying convert is left wondering if God is still testing him and will heal him at the "last moment" or if God has even forgiven the physical sins he had committed.
By quoting Isaiah 53:5 and I Peter 2:24 HWA wanted readers to believe that Christ paid for our physical healing: Let us see what Dr. J. Vernon McGee had to say about these two verses:
The phrase "with His stripes we are healed" may cause questions in your mind. Of what are we healed? Are we healed of physical diseases? Is that the primary meaning of it? I am going to let Simon Peter interpret this by the inspiration of the Spirit of God. First Peter 2:24 says, "Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed." Healed of what? Peter makes it quite clear that we are healed of our trespasses and sins. (Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee, Vol. 3, p. 314)
I notice that when so-called faith healers use the words, "by whose stripes ye were healed," they refer to Isaiah 53:5 rather than to this verse in I Peter, because Peter makes it evident that the healing is of sins. I certainly agree that the Lord Jesus came to be the Great Healer—but the Great Healer heals of sins. No human physician can handle that problem. And Peter's use of these words from Isaiah 53:5 reveals that the prophet Isaiah was not speaking primarily of physical healing but of that which is more important and more profound, healing from sin. (Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 695)
This subject of "physical sin" is commented on in our article: What Were the Lies and What is the Truth?
They are listed below: 1. Maintain a Tranquil Mind; 2. Food and Fasting; 3. Cleanliness and Dress; 4. Sunshine and Fresh Air; 5. Exercise; 6. Sleep and Rest; 7. Avoid Bodily Injury.
Although these "laws" may help maintain good health, they are not a guarantee against illnesses, accidents or death! Some people can break all of these laws and still have good health. Others can obey all of them and still develop terminal illnesses. These obviously are not "laws" but common sense principles that HWA tried to disguise as physical laws to support his phony healing doctrine. We can readily see that by obeying the tithing laws (especially in 3rd tithe year where 30% of one's gross income is required) causes one to break the first "Law of Health"!
Exerting control over personal decisions is another characteristic of a Bible-based cult. Paranoia over standard institutions (government, educators, church) will now spill out onto the medical community. Isolation plays a key part of mind control, and HWA does his best to get his converts to continually cut ties with the outside world. Rejecting the medical establishment prevents the convert from being physically and psychologically evaluated for signs of physical or emotional abuse, depression, and/or spiritual abuse. It also prevents the convert from getting real help for his conditions, which in turn, will cause him to question why the medical community can alleviate his suffering, which in turn will cause him to question the organization and doubt the healing doctrine.
Questioning leads to challenging the system, and HWA's totalitarian government cannot tolerate this. It is a known fact that HWA used doctors himself, and even had his own private physician.14 Like the religious hypocrites in Jesus' day, HWA was more than willing to place burdens on the members that he, himself, would not bear.
The second erroneous teaching, cleverly inserted into this emotional story of Christ's suffering and death, is the belief that He was not crucified on a cross, but on a "stake":
Scourging was intended to weaken the victims so they would die quickly on the stake of crucifixion. (p. 212)
Although HWA mentions that Jesus was "unable to carry his cross," he is being very deceitful. He engages in "Christian" sounding terms, but will redefine them later. Once in the organization, converts will learn to despise the cross, and will be taught that he was crucified on a pole or "stake." The familiar arguments are given below:
Why do [your] publications show Jesus on a stake with hands over his head instead of on a traditional cross? The Greek word rendered "cross" in many modern Bible versions ("torture stake" NW) is stau-ros'. In classical Greek, this word meant merely an upright stake, or pale. Later it also came to be used for an execution stake having a crosspiece, The Imperial Bible-Dictionary [by P. Fairbairn, London, 1874, Vol 1, p376] acknowledges this saying: "The Greek word for cross [stau-ros'], properly signified a stake, an upright pole, or piece of paling, on which anything might be hung, or which might be used in impaling [fencing in] a piece of ground….Even amongst the Romans the crux (from which our cross is derived) appears to have been originally an upright pole." (Reasoning from the Scriptures, 1989, p. 89.)
What were the historical origins of Christendom's cross? "Various objects, dating from the periods long anterior to the Christian era, have been found, marked with crosses of different designs, in almost every part of the old world. India, Syria, Persia and Egypt have all yielded numberless examples…The use of the cross as a religious symbol in pre-Christian times and among non-Christian peoples may probably be regarded as almost universal, and in very many cases it was connected with some form of nature worship." (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1946, Vol. 6, p. 753).
The shape of the [two-beamed cross] had its origin in ancient Chaldea, and was used as the symbol of the god Tammuz (being in the shape of the mystic Tau, the initial of his name) in that country and in adjacent lands, including Egypt.
Is veneration of the cross a scriptural practice? 1 Cor. 10:14: "My beloved ones, flee from idolatry." (An idol is an image or symbol that is an object of intense devotion, veneration, or worship.) Ex. 20:4-5: (Notice that God commanded that his people not even make an image before which people would bow down.)…Concerning first century Christians, History of the Christian Church says: "There was no use of the crucifix and no material representation of the cross." (New York, 1897, J.F. Hurst, Vol. I, p. 366).
Does it really make any difference if a person cherishes a cross, as long as he does not worship it? How would you feel if one of your dearest friends was executed on the basis of false charges? Would you make a replica of the instrument of execution? Would you cherish it, or would you rather shun it?…So by cherishing the cross, a person is honoring a symbol of worship that is opposed to the true God.
As stated at Ezekiel 8:17, apostate Israel also 'thrust out the shoot to the Lord's nose.' He viewed this as "detestable" and 'offensive.' Why? This "shoot", some commentators explain, was a representation of the male sex organ, used in phallic worship. How, then, must the Lord view the use of the cross, which, as we have seen, was anciently used as a symbol in phallic worship?
After this discussion, is there any wonder that members of the WCG held the cross with such derision and disgust? Did God really reveal these truths directly to HWA, or did he get them from another source? The above quotes were not taken from any WCG publications, but were extracted from the Watchtower Society's handbook, Reasoning from the Scriptures, under the topic "Cross" (1989, pp. 89-93). The similarities are undeniable. Why would HWA derive this teaching from a known religious cult? Ironically, what HWA didn't know was that the Watchtower Society lied about the cross of Christ to their own members. In their Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures, the Watchtower Society intentionally misquoted Roman Catholic scholar, Justus Lipsius (Joost Lips), in his book, De Cruse Liber Primus while deceptively displaying only one of the three illustrations shown in this book.15 The first illustration shows a man being crucified on a single beam, with his hands nailed above his head. The next two illustrations in Lipsius' book—which were deliberately omitted by the Watchtower Society—show the correct cross upon which Jesus was crucified. Lipsius states that four pieces of wood were used: The upright stake, the crossbar in which his hands were nailed in an outstretched position, the piece of wood above the crossbar which contained the entitled superscription ("JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS"), and the final piece of wood fastened below for his feet. Justus Lipsius affirms that Jesus was nailed to a cross as displayed in the latter two illustrations, and not on a simple stake as shown in the first. HWA never realized that he was being duped by the Watchtower Society while he was gleaning his doctrines! The Interlinear is not available to the general public,16 so HWA was never aware of how the Watchtower Society lied about this particular teaching.
HWA made a big deal over the pagan origins of the cross. What about the cross being pagan? Of course it is—Jesus certainly wouldn't have been hung on a "Christian" cross, would he? The cross was an instrument of execution used by Romans. This is what HWA wanted his members to focus on. What he didn't point out was the fact that Jesus transformed this instrument of death into a symbol of hope, and opened the door to forgiveness of sins and eternal life. Remembering the cross of Calvary reminds believers that he conquered death and was resurrected. One must ask why would HWA look to the Watchtower Society for his doctrines instead of quoting Scripture? There are 28 scriptural references using the word "cross" and none of them are derogatory, nor do any support derision against the cross. On the contrary, we see Scriptures that show us the cross was a reminder of the sacrifice of Jesus, and we are not to be the enemies of the cross.
But God forbid that I should boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. (Gal. 6:14)
For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God. (I Cor. 1:18)
For it pleased the Father that in him should fullness dwell; And having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven. (Col. 1:19-20)
(For many walk, of whom I have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ;) (Phil. 3:18a)
When we focus on the Savior and his endless love and sacrifice, "pagan paranoia" fades into deserved irrelevance. Let's "believe the Bible" and not him (HWA).3. JESUS SCREAMING
The third erroneous teaching introduced by HWA is the final death of Jesus. On page 212 he quotes from the Moffatt Bible—a modernist translation, which denies the infallibility of the Bible:
…As he [Jesus] hung on the cross, helpless, a soldier stabbed him with a spear, he screamed in pain (Matt. 27:50, Moffatt) and then he died.
According to the gospels, Jesus had already died before the soldiers came.
Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. (Matt. 27:50, KJV)
And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. (Mark 16:37)
And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit; and having said thus, he gave up the ghost. (Luke 23:46)
When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost. (John 19:30)…Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs; But one of the soldiers, with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water. (vs. 32-34).
Why would God's apostle misrepresent Scripture? If HWA was personally trained by Jesus, then why does he plainly contradict what the Scriptures say concerning him? HWA's rendition of Jesus' death on the cross does not show a Savior who voluntarily gave up his life on the cross, but instead, depicted one who was involuntarily slain by a soldier. Saddling the reader with guilt, HWA says this happened because of transgression of the Law. Now the reader is placed in the position of having to make up for this awful death by keeping the Law as dictated by HWA. The focus here is on guilt, and not on sacrificial love, nor on forgiveness.
CHURCH—ONE CANNOT JOIN
Secret societies never allow anyone just off the street to join:
Anyone who "joins the church of his choice" has not come into God's true Church. Once cannot just "join" the TRUE Church of God. (p. 229)
Advocating the belief that God selects those He wants in his church, the reader easily plays into HWA's hands. The reader doesn't know what insiders' already know—that he must jump through several hoops before he will be allowed "in." Locating a local church will prove to be a challenge. He won't be able to find a telephone listing in the Yellow Pages of the nearest church, nor will he be allowed to simply walk into a church service without ministerial approval. If the reader is convinced that he must be part of this church to save his skin from the impending cataclysmic holocaust, he will write away to the headquarters and request a visit from a minister. Eventually, the minister (with another person) will visit and question the person to see how much literature he has ingested and observe how compliant he is to the organization's teachings. Even after this initial visit, he will still not be invited to church, much to the surprise and disappointment of the potential recruit. This alone should have raised a big red flag to this unbiblical practice. Refusing easy entry into the church creates a deep longing and willingness to do anything to be part of the organization. Further ministerial visits are sessions to screen potential members by their willingness to submit to requirements. Is he smoking? Then he must quit. Is he "shacking up"? Then he must marry. Is he eating unclean foods? Then he must change his diet. Is he keeping the Sabbath, etc.? This initiation process can take weeks, even months, depending on the number of hoops he must jump through. [For a personal experience showing how this process works, read: How Did Herbert W. Armstrong Recruit People?] As time passes, the recruit becomes more urgent as his desire to obtain access to the church becomes insatiable. When he is finally granted permission to attend services, he is elated, at long last, to be "in." Ironically, the new convert will, in turn, defend this initiation process and jealously guard against unconverted "intruders" walking into services "uninvited."
HWA introduces the notion that only a "minute few" are being called to salvation in this present age. Church members always understood this minute few to be the converted members of the Worldwide Church of God (also known as the 144,000). This illustrious plan of salvation teaches that the majority of the human race is "NOT YET JUDGED" while God lets them willingly and willfully follow Satan's "GET" way. From this description, we can easily conclude that God allows men to disagree with Him, even disobey Him, without any condemnation. HWA said that they are not being judged at this present time. He clearly explained on page 235 that "Christ had already atoned for their sins." According to HWA, "uncalled" humans would be allowed to continue living in their sinful state, but they would "reap what they sowed." Sounds easy enough.
Now let's examine some deeper questions: Is it accurate to say that if one is not judged yet, one is not condemned (to the Lake of Fire)? In order for one to be condemned, as stated by HWA, a formal Judgment must first take place. Now let's think about the millions who have come into contact with HWA's teachings—those who read some of the literature, but never entered the church, much less contacted a minister. If they decide, in this life, to reject what they have read, are they held accountable? Are they condemned? "No," according to HWA. These "uncalled" persons will be given a chance later, during a "special resurrection to judgment at the end of the 7,000 years of the master plan." God has not opened their eyes to understand His Truth yet. If they do not believe the literature, then God isn't calling them yet. From this, we can deduce that the uncalled can disagree with God in this present life, and if one can disagree with, and even reject the words of the Creator without being judged or condemned, then let us further ask: Since HWA is God's messenger who is teaching God's truth, can one read and disagree with, or outright reject HWA's literature without condemnation? After all, millions aren't called to understand, right? And that includes "born-again Christians."
They [Christians] do not know they are deceived and wrong in their beliefs. But they are not now being judged! They are neither condemned to the lake of fire nor "saved." They are among the WHOLE WORLD, swayed by the deceptions of Satan, CUT OFF from God! (p. 272)
"This is not the time when salvation is opened to those in Satan's world." (p. 270)
So according to HWA's own words, traditional Christians, along with the WHOLE WORLD, are not being judged nor are they condemned. God is opening the eyes, in this present time, of only a minute few. Now contrast this with the following. In the book, The United States and Britain in Prophecy (1980), we see HWA plainly condemn those who disagree with his British-Israel/Sabbath doctrine to the Lake of Fire:
"Yes," says the rebellious one who would argue his way out of obedience, "but it is between God and the children of ISRAEL. It is throughout Israel's generations; it is between God and the ISRAELITES forever.
Oh—then you admit it is binding FOREVER on Israelites—and throughout their generations? There are TWO answers to that argument that will condemn you, if you so argue, to the LAKE OF FIRE! (Chapter XI, "Sign for Israel Only?" p. 141)
HWA, once again, has contradicted his own teaching. If millions read the United States and Britain in Prophecy, and did not believe this particular teaching concerning the Sabbath, ARE they or are they NOT condemned? Either they are or they aren't. Here, HWA says those who argue with this teaching and try to wiggle out of it, ARE condemned. This means, millions who have read this book (including born-again Christians), and decided it was pure hogwash, are condemned. Apparently, it is okay to willingly and willfully disobey God, but one cannot argue with and willfully disobey HWA without his invoking God's wrath upon him!
HWA performed this doctrinal flip-flop in order to trap people into his organization. In the MOA, the reader is invited to write for a free copy of the The United States and Britain in Prophecy for more detailed explanations. He will be spoon-fed a steady diet of sensational claims concerning the lost identity of the tribes of Israel. [See my research article: Where Are the Tribes of Israel Located?] The reader, weak in doctrine, does not see how he was tricked into believing that if he doesn't agree with HWA—does not believe that he is an Israelite, and that he is required to keep the Sabbath (including the annual Sabbaths)—then he is condemned to the Lake of Fire for questioning and resisting this. Notice how HWA labels those who won't submit to this teaching as "rebellious ones." We have revisited this set-up umpteen times. HWA, a shrewd salesman, cannot allow the customer to walk away.
HWA offers a palatable salvation solution—one that is irresistibly reasonable and universally fair—a scenario where almost everybody wins. But after the convert takes the bait, he is blindsided by a clever switch.17 HWA ridicules the teaching of a literal hell, but will hang "annihilation in the Lake of Fire" over his converts' heads for anything that smacks of "rebellion," "bad attitudes" and "bitterness" against him and his organization. "The Lake of Fire" is another loaded term which is nothing more than HWA's redefinition of hell—only, in cruel irony, he is willing to cast his chosen, elite "converted members" into it for being "unsubmissive" and "rebellious," but lets off those outside of his organization with a wink and a promise of a second resurrection in a future paradise.
The reader does not have enough doctrinal learning to think through the cruelty and unfairness of HWA's plan of salvation since he does not understand what all that entails. HWA fools the reader into thinking that Christianity teaches a false plan of salvation, where God has favorites:
If God is opening salvation to the few in his Church only to give them salvation, while he excluded the preponderance of the world as a whole until later, then God certainly would be a respecter of persons, discriminating against the world as a whole. Jesus said plainly no man can come unto him except that the Father draws him (John 6:44). A professed Christianity believes precisely the opposite. This false Christianity teaches that God is calling and trying to save everybody in this present time. If that were so, then Satan is certainly winning a great victory over God. For the overwhelming majority of mankind knows [sic] little or nothing about Christ or salvation through him. (p. 215)
Although this argument sounds logical, it is full of loopholes and misrepresentations used to push the right buttons to get the reader to side with him. Again, HWA will not quote Scripture to show why Christianity believes what it does. He simply declares it unjust, and then introduces his own "fair" salvation plan. Claiming that the "overwhelming majority of mankind know little or nothing about Christ," he fails to mention the millions of professing Christians located throughout the world, even in Communist countries such as China. But since they don't ascribe to his version of "Christianity," he disregards them altogether.
Does God really "call" those He wants into the WCG (or any other splinter), or does HWA underhandedly intimidate people into his group? On page 269, the reader is invited to take an in-depth Bible course. The Bible Correspondence Course is given "gratis" upon request. One does not realize that this poisonous "freebie" is another tool used to make the reader take the bait through use of fear, intimidation, and end-of-the-world threats—techniques used by master scammers. The first several lessons (1969 version) consist of the "paradoxes of mankind"—great achievement versus appalling evil—and world leaders declaring that there are no solutions to these problems. As the lessons continue, they cover the Millennium and the supposed "deceptive lies" of "traditional Christianity." The next lessons focus on natural disasters and impending nuclear war. Finally, in Lesson 8, the pressure is on:
We frankly doubt whether all of you FULLY GRASP the dangerous knowledge that you have learned from your own Bibles through this Course. We want to impress on you the seriousness of knowing what the future holds. YOU HAVE NO EXCUSE whenever you fail to act upon God's warning—BECAUSE YOU NOW KNOW what God plans to do! (Ambassador College Bible Correspondence Course, 1969, Lesson 8, "This is GOD Speaking…"! p. 4.)
The above technique, used by scammers, is known as "commitment and consistency." The lessons leading up to this point were designed to get one to agree with HWA's assessment of the world—that it's a rotten, evil, polluted, crime-filled, confused mess. Even though something as simple as agreeing with HWA's opinions seems small, professional scammers know how to later use this against someone. Once the reader arrives at this lesson, he now discovers he is responsible for what he knows. If he still does not take the bait, then he will be made to feel that he is being inconsistent—after all, he did agree with HWA for seven full lessons and now he is trying to renege:
Beware the lethargy and confusion of which NEWSWEEK magazine warns:
...Incapable of determining the truth, people have developed a skepticism, a "you-show-me" attitude, which resists taking advice from God's verbal warnings. (Ambassador College Bible Correspondence Course, 1969, Lesson 8, "This is GOD Speaking…"! p. 4.)
Using personal insults, HWA slaps on the labels of lethargy, confusion, skepticism and an arrogant attitude toward God Himself for not heeding his warnings. Combine this with the carefully planted doomsday threats:
But soon God is going to show the disobedient world the consequences of its evil. He will speak in a language the world will understand—He will unleash terrifying forces of nature. Through these forces He will inflict physical punishment for our own good until we learn how WRONG we have been. (Ibid.)
The rest of the lesson is filled with graphic pictures of a dust storm, locust plague, hurricane-ravished homes, and a steaming volcano. Cap this off with a Basil Wolverton18 illustration of Sodom and Gomorrah going up in smoke and this can leave one fearfully trembling in his boots! If the pictures aren't convincing enough, then throw in capitalized words like COSMOCIDE, EXCRUCIATING SORES, WAR MACHINES, CAPTIVE INTO VARIOUS COUNTRIES, and PRESENT GENERATION, and in hopes that the scammer will succeed in hitting the epicenter of raw fear that will push the individual into action. Why focus on all this fear? What does the Bible have to say about fear?
There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment. He that feareth is not made perfect in love. (I John 4:18)
Fear causes torment. Why does HWA focus on fear, doomsday scenarios, and divine punishment instead of telling us about the perfect love of Christ, which will cast out all these fears
In his usual inconsistent manner, HWA wants the reader to believe that God is only "calling a minute few," and that mankind, on the whole, is not being judged for his actions in this life. But here in this lesson, HWA now portrays an angry and vengeful God that will punish the world for being disobedient and stubborn. If God isn't calling these people in the first place, then why is He punishing them? HWA explained earlier that God is not judging mankind, but here HWA claims that God will actively execute divine punishment against mankind for his rebellion. This doctrinal flip-flop and Jekyll/Hyde image of God is employed at HWA's convenience.
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